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Wave Corrector

Convert Vinyl Records and Tapes to CD & Digital Audio

Frequently Asked Questions - All FAQs

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Download the installation file, wcor_37.exe, from our website download page, http://www.wavecor.co.uk/wavedl and save it to a convenient location on your computer. Then, double click on the file icon to launch the Wave Corrector set-up program. This will install the program files and create an entry in your start menu.

Wave Corrector uses various techniques to deter software piracy. One of these is to generate a spoof registration if an unauthorised key is detected. The spoof registration is in the name of 'Fanlight Fanny' and it locks out further attempts to register the program.

If you have previously used an unauthorised key and now want to enter a genuine registration, you will need to remove Wave Corrector from your computer and replace it with a new copy. To do this, proceed as follows:

  1. Un-install Wave Corrector:- Start the Windows Control Panel applet ?Add Remove Programs?; then select ?Wave Corrector from the list to un-install.
  2. Re-install Wave Corrector. (If you no longer have the original installation file, you can download it from our website at wavedl.)
  3. The ?Register Wave Corrector? command will now be available.

If you're curious about Fanlight Fanny, she was a notorious nightclub hostess immortalised in a song by the Lancashire comic actor George Formby. He performed the song in the film Trouble Brewing.

Both the name and key are case sensitive so you have to enter them exactly as shown in your registration email. For example, if your name is shown as 'John Smith', do not enter 'john smith' or 'JOHN SMITH'. The key (eg 'ABCDEFGH') is always upper case. Also, make sure there are no leading or trailing spaces and that there is a single space between your first name and surname.

Registration keys are generated automatically when your order is processed. Therefore, you should receive your registration key within a few minutes of placing your order.

Occasionally registration emails can be blocked by over-enthusiastic spam filters. In the event of non delivery, please check your spam filter settings and contact Wave Corrector support for your key to be re-sent.

With current versions of Wave Corrector there is an Un-install option under Start Menu/Programs/Wave Corrector.

Older versions are un-installed by opening Add/Remove Programs applet in the Windows Control Panel. Select "Wave Corrector" from the list and click the button "Add/Remove". This launches the Wave Corrector un-install program. All Wave Corrector files will be removed from your computer and all its registry entries will be deleted.

Windows uses separate controls for playback and recording so it is not unusual for this to occur. To enable recording from line-in, select the 'Record New Wave File' command in Wave Corrector, and then in the Recording Window, click the 'Set Volume' button. This will launch the Windows Volume Control recording applet. Ensure that the 'Line' input is selected and that its volume slider is turned up. You should now be able to record.

Note, you can also reach the recording control by double clicking on the Volume icon in the system tray. Then select Options/Properties/Adjust Volume for Recording; and proceed as above.

This message means that you are trying to process a file that is not in the correct audio format.

If you are using Wave Corrector to make your recordings (ie using the ?Record New Wave File? command on the File Menu), then you won?t ever get this message. This is because Wave Corrector forces all new recordings to be in the correct format. If you use another recording program, then ensure that your files are formatted as 16-bit or 24-bit stereo with a sampling rate of 44.1, 48.0,.88.2 or 96.0kHz.

It is also possible to receive this message if your forget to click the 'Record' button in the Wave Corrector Record Window. If you forget to do this, then the program will never start recording and you will end up with an empty file. This also (somewhat misleadingly) gives the same error message.

 Not directly. Because of licensing restrictions we do not support MP3. However, Wave Corrector does support the open source equivalent of MP3 called Ogg Vorbis. Ogg Vorbis has significant advantages over MP3, the most important of which is audio quality as verified by many independent tests. It is also free of "digital rights management" issues which can compromise library security if, for example, you need to back up your library onto a second computer. You can find out more at the Ogg Vorbis Official website.

As well as Ogg Vorbis, Wave Corrector also supports a lossless compression format called Monkey's Audio .ape. Lossless compression avoids the audio degradation inherent in lossy compression systems such as MP3 and Ogg Vorbis.

Wave Corrector also supports the use of  external command-line encoders. If you have a suitable encoder installed on your PC (eg LAME.EXE ) then you can configure Wave Corrector to use it to generate MP3 files.

If your computer is equipped with a CD burner, then it will have burning software installed (probably Easy CD Creator or Nero). This will have been supplied with the burner.

When you use Wave Corrector's 'Save and Close' command, it generates wave files (one per track) ready for burning. You simply need start your burning software and select the wave files created by Wave Corrector. Remember to select 'Disk-at-Once' mode if you want to avoid 2 second gaps between tracks.

No, we only deliver Wave Corrector electronically via the Internet.

When you start Wave Corrector and scan in a wave file, the opening screen will look something like the left-hand image below:

opening

Before Adjustment

       

after

After Adjustment

This is the way Wave Corrector displays a track boundary, in this case the Start of Track 1 boundary. The white vertical line at the centre of the screen is the boundary marker.

If necessary, you can re-position where the track starts and/or add a fade-in period. To re-position, pick up the white marker with the mouse and drag it to the left or right. The yellow bar at the top is used to set a fade-in period. By default the fade-in is set to 0, so the left hand edge of the bar is vertical. But you can drag this with the mouse to create a triangular portion which represents the fade-in period. This is shown in the right-hand image above.

No, we do not have the resources to port Wave Corrector to other operating systems. However, if you run Linux on a  PC, then it is possible to run Wave Corrector under WINE. WINE is an open source implementation of the Windows API that runs on Liinux. You can find more information at WINE HQ. Please let us know if you encounter any problems running Wave Corrector under WINE. There are also implementation of WINE for MAC OSX. ALthough not free, the most user firendly implementation of WINE for both Linux and Mac are from Codeweavers.

See some screenshots of Wave Corrector running under WINE here.

Skips in recordings are symptomatic of your computer not being able to keep up with the flow of data from your soundcard. This causes buffers to overflow and loss of data. Wave Corrector uses generous buffer sizes so this problem is relatively rare. However, if you are affected, you should investigate the following possibilities:

  1. Disk fragmenting. It is possible that your hard disk is fragmented. This greatly slows down disk writing and could be a possible cause. There is a defrag utility built into Windows, so you could try running that.
  2. Other programs running in the background. It?s possible that you have other programs running which are taking resources away from the recording program. For example, if you have MS Office installed, by default it runs a utility called FindFast every 2 hours. This indexes all the document files on your hard disk and it is likely to disrupt disk access by other programs while it is running.
  3. Physical memory. Your recording program uses physical memory to buffer the audio data. If your computer has insufficient physical memory, then it will try to use virtual memory which will not be fast enough. 128MB of physical memory is recommended for most recording programs.

We do not supply a printed manual. However, on our website, you can download the manual in Adobe Acrobat format. You can then print it out yourself if you so require.

There is also a tutorial on our website which you can also download and print out. The tutorial gives a general introduction to recording vinyl audio on your computer with additional sections specific to Wave Corrector.

To download the manual (or tutorial) right click on its link and select the option ?Save Target As...? This will save the manual (or tutorial) to your hard disk. Once saved, you can print it out or view it as required.

The manual can be found at support and the tutorial at tutorials.

While processing, Wave Corrector keeps a temporary copy of the file being processed thus, in effect, doubling the disk space requirements. So for example, processing a 60 minute wave file will require about 1.2GB of hard disk space.

The temporary copy is used to provide the overlay display of corrected and uncorrected wave.

This is dictated by the fact that file positions are calculated using signed 32bit arithmetic. For this reason you should ensure that wave files to be processed in Wave Corrector are no longer than 3hrs 30mins.

To apply fades between tracks, you must ensure that "Gapless Track Boundaries" mode is not selected. You can turn gapless mode on or off by clicking on the 'Gapless' command on the Tracks menu.. (Note, the reason that you cannot apply fades if "Gapless Track Boundaries" is selected is that this mode is designed for "Disk-at-Once" recording where the CD plays without breaks between tracks; so it wouldn?t be sensible to apply a fade in these circumstances.)

Then, the simplest way to apply a fade is to use the "Next Marker"/"Previous Marker" toolbar buttons to select the track boundary where you want to apply the fade. Then, drag the yellow "fade bar" at the top of the window to set the length of fade required. As you drag it, the bar becomes triangular to indicate the fade duration.

Alternatively, you can use the "Properties" command on the Tracks Menu, to enter fade-in or fade-out times directly.

To hear the effect of a particular fade, you have to select the track boundary as described above and then use the ?Audition Track Boundary toolbar button.

The fade(s) will be applied to the output file(s) as they are saved.

Unfortunately, the algorithms used in Wave Corrector are proprietary, so we cannot reveal exactly how they work. However, the program implements two distinct functions: click detection and waveform regeneration.

For click detection, the program calculates the instantaneous rate of change for each sample point and performs a statistical analysis of these rate of change values. Outlier values are marked as potential clicks, and then further analysis is performed to differentiate actual clicks from musical transients.

Waveform regeneration is performed using an iterative technique.  The program performs a frequency analysis of the waveform in the vicinity of the click being corrected. The most significant frequency components are used to generate an initial replacement waveform, and then the process is iterated using a technique similar to successive approximations.

A newly inserted manual correction is given minimum width and hence has no effect until it is accurately positioned over the click being corrected and the width adjusted to an appropriate value.

If, having done this, a click is still audible then there is probably a second click very nearby which you will need to correct as well.

What this demonstrates is that Wave Corrector's click detector can mis-fire due to musical content. Although this might seem a problem, in practice it usually has a negligible effect on the quality of the end result. This is because the replacement waveform that Wave Corrector generates (the 'correction') is calculated to accurately match the surrounding wave. Hence you are unlikely to hear any aberrations as a result of these 'false positives'. The only exceptions are with certain instruments (eg low frequency brass) which can cause clusters of corrections very close together. These can alter the quality of the sound making it more 'rasping'. The signature command on the view menu enables you to determine if this is happening and you can remove these spurious corrections using the block commands.

Click discrimination is a difficult process because the program has to find clicks in the presence of such a wide variety of possible musical content. Wave Corrector, in common with most similar software, uses a statistical method which looks for sudden changes in the statistics describing the wave.

All click eliminator programs suffer from this problem to some extent. In Wave Corrector, we've concentrated on making the 'corrections' as accurate as possible and also on providing the tools to enable you to audition and correct any mistakes the program makes.

There is a section in the Help File on 'false negatives' and 'false positives' which goes into this in more detail.

If Wave Corrector doesn't completely remove a click, there are two possible procedures for manually removing it:

1. It may be possible to adjust the correction for the particular click. Depending on the characteristics of the click, Wave Corrector may underestimate its severity and hence under-correct it. To adjust the correction, first use the horizontal scale controls and the lower scroll bar to move to the point in the waveform where the click is occurring. Zoom in to about 50 samples per division. if you then double click with the mouse over the click, its correction will be selected in the correction list. You can now drag the edge of the correction with the mouse to widen it; and also use the left/right arrow keys to move the correction from side to side. Doing a combination of these things, you may be able to eliminate the pop. You can audition the effect of your adjustment using the ?Audition Corrected? toolbar button.

See the next question for a more detailed description.

2. It may be, if the click is very severe, that you cannot completely eliminate it with the above procedure. In this case, you can use 'Cut and Splice' to remove the click completely. To do this drag, with the mouse from left to right over the click. This will select the click as a block. Then use Block - Cut & Splice, to remove the click from the waveform. Note, before using Cut & Splice you can use the Audition Corrected toolbar button to audition the effect of the operation.

The easiest way to understand the Adjust/Insert procedure is to use it to adjust an existing correction (rather than inserting a new one).

Select a correction from the correction list, preferably a large yellow or red one. If the horizontal scale is sufficiently zoomed in, then you can adjust the correction as follows: move the mouse to the 'edge' of the correction; the mouse pointer will change to East-West arrows. Hold down the left mouse button and drag with the mouse. As you drag, the correction will become wider or narrower and you can see how the corrected wave changes versus the underlying uncorrected wave. Note, if the display is zoomed out too much, then you will not see the East-West arrows and you will have to invoke the command using the Adjust/Insert toolbar button. As well as adjusting the width of the correction, you can also move it to the left or right by using the cursor left/right keys. You will see how by adjusting the width and position of a correction, you can visually adjust the shape of the wave to get the best looking result; you can use the audition before and after toolbar buttons to hear the effect of your changes.

Having familiarised yourself with adjusting corrections, you can then move on to the slightly more complicated task of inserting new ones.

To insert a new correction, you need to visually identify the point in the waveform where the click is occurring. Sometimes this is obvious but other times it can be difficult and you need to use trial and error. Having identified the point where you think the click is, centre the display on that point and zoom in to say, 50 samples per division. (note, to centre the display you can simply double click over the point you want to centre on). Then, use the same procedure as described above to 'drag' a correction over the click. Again, you can use the audition commands to see if your correction has eliminated the click.

As a general rule, it is best not to perform multiple passes of the click corrector. This is because of the statistical method that Wave Corrector uses to discriminate between clicks and music. When it scans a waveform that has already been corrected, it is much more likely to trigger falsely. And if you continue to re-scan several times, eventually audible distortion will result.

However, for exceptionally noisy recordings, you can use Wave corrector's Super-Scan command to make multiple passes.

When you insert or adjust a correction, the program needs to have access to the waveform data in the vicinity of the correction. However, when you apply a filter, the waveform data is altered; and therefore it is not available for the insert/adjust commands. Hence, Insert/Adjust is disabled.

If you find you need to insert or adjust a correction after you've applied the rumble (or other) filter, then you need to use the 'Remove Filtering' command on the Waveform Menu. This will remove the filtering and re-enable Insert/Adjust. After you've made your insertions/adjustments you can then re-apply the filter.

Unfortunately, sensitivity levels 4 and 5 are quite aggressive and can cause distortion with certain types of music. Human voice can be affected as well as some low frequency brass and woodwind instruments. The most sensitive settings should therefore be used as sparingly as possible.

If you find that you definitely need to use setting 4 or 5 for most of the file, then you can use Wave Corrector Block commands to re-scan the distorted sections at a lower threshold. You simply need to drag a block over the section where distortion is occurring, and then select the command 'Re-Scan Block'. Select a lower setting (say 3) and the distortion should be removed. Of course, with the less aggressive setting, you may get the return of some of the noise. However, this will almost certainly be preferable to the distortion. Note, it is possible to manually insert corrections over clicks. So if re-scanning at level 3 causes some clicks to re-appear, you can try manually removing them. However, this is quite time consuming and requires a degree of skill/practice.

Wave Corrector is less effective against crackle than against other types of noise. The program is designed to restore vinyl recordings which generally contain discrete clicks rather than constant crackle. Crackle is more typical of old shellac records (78's). Unfortunately, crackle is a type of noise which is too continuous for click corrections to be totally effective; but it is too impulsive for a hiss filter to be effective. In Wave Corrector, clicks are detected by a statistical algorithm which analyses the music and looks for statistically significant departures from the norm. A constant background crackle makes it very difficult for this algorithm to differentiate between the music and the noise. On the other hand, the hiss filter assumes a smooth constant level of background noise (rather like when you de-tune an FM radio). Because crackle contains high amplitude instantaneous peaks, it cannot be completely removed by the hiss filer either. In fact, if you apply the hiss filter to crackly recording, the crackles may produce unpleasant artefacts.

The best approach for removing crackle is to Wave Corrector's SuperScan command to make multiple passes of the click corrector. This superimposes new corrections on top of those already present and will significantly reduce the crackle. It's probable however that some crackle will remain even after this process.

Note, crackle can be a by-product of inappropriate cleaning. This is because the cleaning process can leave behind microscopic residues. If you think this is the cause of your crackle, then you should have these residues removed by a professional record cleaning service.

These noises are typical of the artefacts you get when the hiss filter is working too hard. This can happen if the hiss filter has been incorrectly calibrated or if the noise present is not suitable for removal by a hiss filter.

The hiss filter is calibrated using a 'noise profile'. It is important to understand how this works if you are to avoid these unwanted artefacts. The 'noise profile' consists of a section of the recording where the noise is present but no music. The noise profile acts as a 'mask' which is subtracted from the rest of the recording. For the process to work properly, the original recording must include a second or two of lead-in or lead-out where there is no music playing. The program uses a portion of the lead-in or lead-out as the noise profile.

However, even when a lead-in is present, the program can still sometimes mis-measure the noise. For example, some live recordings can start with applause. In this case, the program may mistake the applause for noise and cause the program to assume the noise level is much higher than it really is. This in turn causes the filter to over-correct the hiss and the artefacts will then be much worse than they should be.

To avoid this, Wave Corrector provides the 'View Profile' and Capture New Profile' commands. Select the command View Profile on the Waveform menu and then use the Play Block command to verify that the profile is hiss only and that there is no musical content or applause or other sounds are present. If it is not genuine hiss, then you should manually capture a new noise profile as described in the Help file.

Another possible reason for filtering artefacts is if the noise is too spiky. The hiss filter is designed to remove tape hiss which is relatively constant broadband noise (like when you detune an FM radio) If you try to use the hiss filter, for example, on vinyl records, the characteristic of the noise is such that there are instantaneous peaks left behind after the filtering process. These also result in the warbling artefacts.